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English grammar tables

Syntactic units

Word level

Phrase level

Clause level

Sentence level

Sentence chain level

Personal Pronouns

Other Pronouns

Far and close

Existence – countable and uncountable nouns

Articles - definite and indefinite

Determiners in noun phrases

Noun phrase

Prepositional phrase

Prepositional phrase as an adjunct

Active verb, passive verb and adjective form

'To be' in present tense

Active verb tenses summary

Simple Present Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Simple Past Tense

Irregular verbs

Countries, nationalities, people, languages


Syntactic units
Sentence chain
Sentence
Clause
Phrase
Word

English grammar rules can be grouped and studied at five levels:
words < phrases < clauses < sentences < sentence chains.

The < symbol indicates that there is usually a natural progression in size of the syntactic units in spoken and written messages. However, it is not always the case. For example, a phrase can contain a clause and a sentence can be just one word.

There are specific grammar rules at each level, starting from the phrase level, that tell us how to form longer message elements by combining shorter ones from the same or other syntactic levels. For instance, how to combine words, phrases and even clauses into a longer phrase.

1, Word level - word classes

Words can be sorted into word classes depending on what roles they play in the sentence. The word classes are noun, verb, adverb, adjective, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, etc.

A word class can have sub-classes. For example, there are subject pronouns, object pronouns and possessive pronouns.

Word level analysis
subject pronoun adverb verb adjective noun preposition object pronoun
He quickly made hot tea for her.

2, Phrase level

A phrase is two or more words that do not contain the subject-predicate pair to form a clause but are connected together by grammar rules, meaning or logic and they function as a unit.

Phrase types: noun phrase, adjective phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, infinitive phrase, present and past participle phrase, gerund phrase, and exclamation / interjection phrase.

A phrase has a main part called head and other parts that are referred to by different names: specifier, modifier, dependent, object or complement. Sometime one word is also considered a phrase for analytical purpose.

Phrase level analysis
noun phrase verb phrase adverbial phrase prepositional phrase
noun phrase prepositional phrase
preposition noun phrase preposition noun phrase
The young driver with the glasses was driving quite carelessly through the park.

3, Clause level

A clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete thought. A standard, complete clause has a subject and a predicate, which includes a verb, while a phrase don't. Clauses can be embedded inside phrases and vice versa. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.

Clause level analysis
subject predicate optional parts
The very ill patient gave the doctor his test report a week ago.

4, Sentence level

A standard, complete English sentence has at least one independent clause.

An independent clause is the clause that can stand alone as a sentence.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides an independent clause with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Dependent clauses include noun clauses, relative (adjectival) clauses, and adverbial clauses.

A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses.
A compound sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation, or both.
A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
A compound–complex sentence consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause.
An incomplete sentence does not have a subject and/or a predicate.

Sentence level analysis
Sentence type First clause Conjuction Other clauses
Simple: one independent clause She went to Ocean Park.
Compound: two independent clauses She gambles and she smokes.
Complex:
an independent + a dependent clause
She eats a lot of vegetables that she usually buys at the market.
Compound–complex: two independent clauses + one dependent clause She eats a lot of hamburgers but her boyfriend, who is more health-conscious, never eats junk food.
Non-standard Happy birthday!

5, Sentence chain level

A sentence can influence the grammar and words we use in other related sentences. The related sentences do not need to be adjacent sentences and don't need to be said by the same person.

Look at this example.
Jane: Have you ever been to Japan? It is a beautiful country.
Mary: Yes, I have.

The word "it" in Jane's second sentence is related to the word "Japan" in her first sentence. The words "I" and "have" in Mary's answer are related to the "you" and the present perfect tense, respectively, in Jane's question.



Personal Pronouns
Subject
pronouns
Object
pronouns
Possessive
adjectives
Possessive
pronouns
Reflexive
pronouns
I me my mine myself
you you your yours yourself
he him his his himself
she her her hers herself
it it its its itself
we us our ours ourselves
you you your yours yourselves
they them their theirs themselves

Other pronouns
Pronoun types Forms Examples
Relative pronouns which, whose, whoever, whomever, who, whom, that the teacher that we like, the restaurant where I usually have dinner, the man whose wife has died
Interrogative Pronouns what, which, who, whom, whose Who is that? Whose car is it?
Demonstrative pronouns this, that, these, those this map, those roses
Indefinite Pronouns {some-, any-, every-, no-} + {-thing, -one, -body}; many, more, both, most; one, oneself somebody, no-one, everyone, anything; One does not drive one's own car. I like both. I can accept most.
Reciprocal pronoun each other, one another He and she hate each other's family.
Negative pronoun None I want none.
Intensive pronoun yourself, herself, himself, themselves, ourselves Tom himself cleaned the whole house. (He did it alone.)

A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase


Far and close
Referring to objects Close Far Pronoun
Singular and uncount noun this that it
Plural noun these those they / them
Place here there ---

Existence – there is, there are
Uncountable noun Countable noun
Singular
Countable noun
Plural
+ There is some milk in the fridge. There is an English tutor in each F6 class. There are some students there.
- There isn't any cheese at home. There isn't a dictionary on the shelf. There aren't any native English teachers in that school.
? Is there any money in your wallet? Is there a grammar mistake here? Are there any schools nearby?

Articles - definite and indefinite
Types Forms Examples Description
Definite article the the moon,
the chairs,
the Pope
It refers to something the listener can identify because the speaker has already mentioned it or because it is unique in the context or there is only one.
Indefinite articles a, an a hotel,
an hour,
an umbrella,
a unit
It indicates that the noun is not a particular one identifiable to the listener. It may be something that the speaker is mentioning for the first time, or its precise identity may be irrelevant, or the speaker may be making a general statement.

Determiners in noun phrases
Determiner types Determiner examples Noun phrase (determiner + noun)
Article the, a, an the bus, the cars, a bike
Demonstrative adjectives this, that, these, those those ideas, this pen
Possessive determiners my, your, his, her, its, our, their my friends, its windows
Possessive nouns 's, s' Peter's brother, the boy's teacher, the girls' coach
Quantifiers several, many, little, much, few, a lot of, no, some, any a lot of people, little water, any money, no time
Numerals three three bananas
Distributive pronoun each, either, neither, both each bird, both doors
Interrogative determiner which, whose, what, how many whose sister, which office, how many days
(Only the noun alone) - "Peter likes cats." (Neither 'Peter' nor 'cats' has a determiner.)
Combinations all the, the many all the mistakes, the many unanswered questions

A determiner is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and expresses the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.


Noun phrase
Type of modifier Determiner Optional
pre-modifier
Head (noun) Post-modifier
Adjective that funny cat
Adjective phrase an extremely large watermelon
Present participle drinking water
Present participle the typhoon coming
Past participle a wanted man
Past participial phrase five pens filled with red ink
Noun some collage students
Prepositional phrase in the concert hall
Prepositional phrase his presentation about Hong Kong
Adverb Jane's only lover
Adverb the buildings nearby
Relative clause the film (which) we saw yesterday
Dependent clause the belief that God exists
Infinite phrase all my desire to play well
Adjective as head the homeless
Adjective as head the English at home
Pronoun as head nobody in particular
Pronoun as head those green ones
Pronoun as head the one in the middle
Required post-modifier a sense of fear
A long example: those three rather quiet but demanding young university students with whom we talked this morning
Examples for one word noun phrase cows; him; Joe; London; milk

A noun phrase is a phrase which has a noun, an indefinite pronoun or an adjective as its head word and zero or more other words. The whole noun phrase can be replaced by a pronoun.

Modifiers are usually optional. They give extra information about the noun. But sometimes a post-modifier is required to complete the meaning of a noun and in this case it is called a complement. e.g. 'the claim' needs a complement 'the claim that he stole her money'

Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other or attached to one another to form a chain.


Prepositional phrase
Preposition Determiner Optional
pre-modifier
Noun, pronoun, gerund, clause
on time
with everlasting love
in the dirty, crowded street
from Adam
for me
about what we dislike
without drinking
by taxi
through a very beautifully designed park
along with other people
in addition to his crimes
in spite of her weaknesses

Prepositional phrases are groups of words containing prepositions.

A prepositional phrase usually starts with a preposition. However, some prepositions, called postpositions, stand behind the object. For example, 'a week ago', 'her weaknesses notwithstanding'.
There is a third category called circumposition where two prepositions are used together before and after a word. For example, the 'from ... on' pair in 'from now on'.
The general term for preposition, postposition and circumposition is adposition but in everyday usage preposition is used for all the three.

A prepositional phrases can function as an adverb or an adjective.


Prepositional phrase as an adjunct
Type of referred word Referred word Prepositional phrase
Verb drank in the room for hours
Verb work during the week
Noun e-mail from my boss
Noun the lake in December
Adjective angry with you
Adjective afraid of big dogs
Predicative expression are against the government
Predicative expression must be at home

The referred word is the word to which the prepositional phrase is an adjunct.


Active verb, passive verb and adjective form
Active verb Passive verb Adjective
This book interests me. I am interested in this book This is an interesting book.
The teacher bores me. I am bored (by the teacher). The teacher is boring.
The story amuses me. I am amused (by the story). It's an amusing story.

To be in present tense
Question words Predicate 1A Subject Predicate 1B Predicate 2 Other words
My mother is a language teacher.  
I am in class now.
The school is closed.
We are not students. .
You aren't old.
Why are you not in the swimming pool with her?
What time is it?
Who is in the kinder garden with him now?
Whose phone is this?
Whose friends are they?
Are your colleagues friendly?
Aren't I handsome?  
Is she not your English teacher?  

Active verb tenses summary
Past Present Future
Simple Simple Past
I learnt
Simple Present
I learn
Simple Future
I will learn
Continuous /
Progressive
Past Continuous
I was learning
Present Continuous
I am learning
Future Continuous
I will be learning
Perfect Past Perfect
I had learnt
Present Perfect
I have learnt
Future Perfect
I will have learnt
Perfect
Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been learning
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been learning
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been learning

Simple Present Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Frequency Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
My English tutor never drinks Chinese tea.
Ms Chan rarely finishes work at 8.
It doesn't usually do that.
I don't care about you.
Who answers the e-mails?
Which hand bag looks better?
What makes you angry?
Do they have a car?
Does your boyfriend speak Chinese or English?
Don't you understand why?
Why do you not always answer me quickly?
What do we finish with?

Time words for Simple Present Tense: never, always, every day, normally, often, seldom, rarely, sometimes, usually


Present Continuous Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
The English teacher is speaking in the classroom.
I am meeting the principal tomorrow.
They aren't writing.
Why are you not looking at us?
Who are we waiting for?
Who is licking my car?
What is happening here?
Whose students are coming the day after tomorrow?
Are your uncles playing table tennis?
Aren't you coming with us?
Is she not watching TV?

Time words for Present Continuous Tense: now, at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, right now, (or a future time for future plan).


Present Perfect Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Frequency Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
My aunt has never drunk Pepsi.
The tourists have already been to the post office.
The gold fish has just gone.  
I haven't seen them for 3 months.
  The native English speaker tutor has not applied for the teaching post yet.
Who has taken in my pen?
Which candidate has sent this resume?
What has made her do that?
Have your grandparents ever been to Hong Kong?
Has your classmate spoken to her yet?
Haven't you cleaned the toilet yet?
Why haven't you     notified me?
What has she done this week?

Time words for Present Perfect Tense: already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now, this morning, for two years, since 2012.


Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
The speaker has been speaking since 9 o'clock.
They have been listening to that music for 3 hours.
Who has been waiting for me there for 2 hours?
How long have you   been saving money for your notebook?
What has the language instructor been doing this afternoon?

Time words for Present Perfect Continuous Tense: all day, for six years, since April, how long?, the whole week.


Simple Past Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
  Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
My niece   drank a lot of beer yesterday.
The engineer   started the engine.
His stupid idea did not   work.  
I didn't do anything.
Who visited your weekend house?
Which pillow looked better?
What made you do that?
Did you use whatsapp in 2012?
Did your English teacher teach the verb tenses?
Didn't you read the book?
Why did you not   write about the specification?
What did we learn yesterday?

Time words for Simple Past Tense: yesterday, 4 minutes ago, in 2000, the other day, last Friday, the day before yesterday, in October.


Irregular verbs
Infinitive Past Past participle
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken/awaked
be was/were been
bear bore borne
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bid bade/bid bidden/bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived/dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit/lighted lit/lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mislay mislaid mislaid
mistake mistook mistaken
pay paid paid
prove proved proved/proven
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shed shed shed
shine shone/shined shone/shined
shoot shot shot
show showed shown/showed
shrink shrank/shrunk shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
slit slit slit
speak spoke spoken
speed sped/speeded sped/speeded
spend spent spent
spin spun spun
spit spit/spat spit/spat
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang/sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank/stunk stunk
strike struck struck/stricken
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden/trod
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
upset upset upset
wake woke/waked woken/waked
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written


Countries, nationalities, people, languages
Country name Language or nationality People
Abkhazia Abkhaz, Abkhazian Abkhazians
Afghanistan Afghan Afghans
Albania Albanian Albanians
Algeria Algerian Algerians
American Samoa American Samoan American Samoans
Andorra Andorran Andorrans
Angola Angolan Angolans
Anguilla Anguillan Anguillans
Antigua and Barbuda Antiguan, Barbudan Antiguans, Barbudans
Argentina Argentine, Argentinean, Argentinian Argentines, Argentineans, Argentinians
Armenia Armenian Armenians
Aruba Aruban Arubans
Australia Australian Australians
Austria Austrian Austrians
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani, Azeri Azerbaijanis, Azeris
Bahamas Bahamian Bahamians
Bahrain Bahraini Bahrainis
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Bangladeshis
Barbados Barbadian  ("Bajan") Barbadians
Belarus Belarusian Belarusians
Belgium Belgian Belgians
Belize Belizean Belizeans
Benin Beninese, Beninois Beninese, Beninois
Bermuda Bermudian, Bermudan Bermudians, Bermudans
Bhutan Bhutanese Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian Bolivians
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Bosniak, Herzegovinian Bosnians, Bosniaks, Herzegovinians
Botswana Motswana (pl. Batswana), Botswanan Batswana, Botswanans
Brazil Brazilian Brazilians
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Island British Virgin Islanders
Brunei Bruneian Bruneians
Bulgaria Bulgarian Bulgarians
Burkina Fasoa Burkinabè/ Burkinabé Burkinabè/ Burkinabé
Burma, Myanmar Burmese Bamar, Burmese
Burundi Burundian Burundians
Cambodia Cambodian Cambodians
Cameroon Cameroonian Cameroonians
Canada Canadian Canadians
Cape Verde Cape Verdean Cape Verdeans
Cayman Islands Caymanian Caymanians
Central African Republic Central African Central Africans
Chad Chadian Chadians
Chile Chilean Chileans
People's Republic of China Chinese Chinese
Christmas Island Christmas Island Christmas Islanders
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Island Cocos Islanders
Colombia Colombian Colombians
Comoros Comorian Comorians
Dem. Republic of the Congo Congolese, Congo Congolese
Republic of the Congo    
Cook Islands Cook Island, Cook Islands Cook Islanders
Costa Rica Costa Rican Costa Ricans
Côte d'Ivoire Ivorian Ivorians
Croatia Croatian Croatians, Croats
Cuba Cuban Cubans
Cyprus Cypriot Cypriots
Czech Republic Czech Czechs
Denmark Danish Danes
Djibouti Djiboutian Djiboutians
Dominica Dominicand Dominicansd
Dominican Republic Dominicane Dominicanse
East Timor Timorese Timorese
Ecuador Ecuadorian Ecuadorians
Egypt Egyptian Egyptians
El Salvador Salvadoran Salvadorans
England English English
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinean, Equatoguinean Equatorial Guineans, Equatoguineans
Eritrea Eritrean Eritreans
Estonia Estonian Estonians
Ethiopia Ethiopian Ethiopians
Falkland Islands Falkland Island Falkland Islanders
Faroe Islands Faroese Faroese
Fiji Fijian Fijians
Finland Finnish Finns
France French French (or Frenchman/ Frenchwoman)
French Guiana French Guianese French Guianese
French Polynesia French Polynesian French Polynesians, Tahitians
Gabon Gabonese Gabonese
Gambia Gambian Gambians
Georgia Georgian Georgians
Germany German Germans
Ghana Ghanaian Ghanaians
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltarians
Great Britain British Britons
Greece Greek, Hellenic Greeks, Hellenes
Greenland Greenlandic Greenlanders
Grenada Grenadian Grenadians
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Guadeloupians
Guam Guamanian Guamanians
Guatemala Guatemalan Guatemalans
Guinea Guinean Guineans
Guinea-Bissau    
Guyana Guyanese Guyanese
Haiti Haitian Haitians
Honduras Honduran Hondurans
Hong Kong Hong Kong, Hongkongese Hongkongers, Hongkongese
Hungary Hungarian Hungarians
Iceland Icelandic Icelanders
India Indian Indians
Indonesia Indonesian Indonesians
Iran Iranian, Persian Iranians, Persians
Iraq Iraqi Iraqis
Ireland Irish Irish
Isle of Man Manx Manx
Israel Israeli Israelis
Italy Italian Italians
Jamaica Jamaican Jamaicans
Japan Japanese Japanese
Jordan Jordanian Jordanians
Kazakhstan Kazakh, Kazakhstani Kazakhstanis, Kazakhs
Kenya Kenyan Kenyans
Kiribati I-Kiribati I-Kiribati
North Korea North Korean Koreans
South Korea South Korean  
Kosovo Kosovar, Kosovan Kosovars
Kuwait Kuwaiti Kuwaitis
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstani, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz Kyrgyzstanis, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz
Laos Laotian, Lao Laotians, Laos
Latvia Latvian Latvians, Letts
Lebanon Lebanese Lebanese
Lesotho Basotho Basotho
Liberia Liberian Liberians
Libya Libyan Libyans
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Liechtensteiners
Lithuania Lithuanian Lithuanians
Luxembourg Luxembourg, Luxembourgish Luxembourgers
Macau Macanese, Chinese Macanese, Chinese
Republic of Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians
Madagascar Malagasy Malagasy
Malawi Malawian Malawians
Malaysia Malaysian Malaysians
Maldives Maldivian Maldivians
Mali Malian Malians
Malta Maltese Maltese
Marshall Islands Marshallese Marshallese
Martinique Martiniquais, Martinican Martiniquais
Mauritania Mauritanian Mauritanians
Mauritius Mauritian Mauritians
Mayotte Mahoran Mahorais
Mexico Mexican Mexicans
Micronesia, Federated States of Micronesian Micronesians
Moldova Moldovan Moldovans
Monaco Monégasque, Monacan Monégasques, Monacans
Mongolia Mongolian Mongolians, Mongols
Montenegro Montenegrin Montenegrins
Montserrat Montserratian Montserratians
Morocco Moroccan Moroccans
Mozambique Mozambican Mozambicans
Namibia Namibian Namibians
Nauru Nauruan Nauruans
Nepal Nepali Nepalese
Netherlands Dutch Dutch
New Caledonia New Caledonian New Caledonians
New Zealand New Zealand New Zealanders
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Nicaraguans
Niue Niuean Niueans
Niger Nigerien Nigeriens
Nigeria Nigerian Nigerians
Norway Norwegian Norwegians
Northern Ireland Northern Irish / British / Irish British / Irish / Northern Irish
Northern Marianas Northern Marianan Northern Marianans
Oman Omani Omanis
Pakistan Pakistani Pakistanis
Palestine Palestinian Palestinians
Palau Palauan Palauans
Panama Panamanian Panamanians
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean, Papuan Papua New Guineans, Papuans
Paraguay Paraguayan Paraguayans
Peru Peruvian Peruvians
Philippines Philippine, Filipino Filipinos, Filipinas
Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Islanders
Poland Polish Poles
Portugal Portuguese Portuguese
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Puerto Ricans, Boricuas
Qatar Qatari Qataris
Republic of Ireland Irish / Southern Irish Irish / Southern Irish
Réunion Réunionese, Réunionnais Réunionese, Réunionnais
Romania Romanian Romanians
Russia Russian Russians
Rwanda Rwandan Rwandans
St. Helena St. Helenian St. Helenians
St. Kitts and Nevis Kittitian, Nevisian Kittitians, Nevisians
St. Lucia St. Lucian St. Lucians
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais
St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Vincentian, Vincentian St. Vincentians, Vincentians
Samoa Samoan Samoans
San Marino Sammarinese Sammarinese
São Tomé and Príncipe São Toméan São Toméans
Saudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian Saudis, Saudi Arabians
Scotland Scots, Scottish, Scotchh Scots, Scotsmen
Senegal Senegalese Senegalese
Serbia Serbian Serbians, Serbs
Seychelles Seychellois Seychellois
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean Sierra Leoneans
Singapore Singapore Singaporeans
Slovakia Slovak Slovaks
Slovenia Slovenian, Slovene Slovenians, Slovenes
Solomon Islands Solomon Island Solomon Islanders
Somalia Somali; Somalian Somalis; Somalians
South Africa South African South Africans
South Ossetia South Ossetian South Ossetians
South Sudan South Sudanese South Sudanese
Spain Spanish Spaniards
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan Sri Lankans
Sudan Sudanese Sudanese
Surinam Surinamese Surinamers
Swaziland Swazi Swazis
Sweden Swedish Swedes
Switzerland Swiss Swiss
Syria Syrian Syrians
Taiwan
Republic of China
Taiwanese Taiwanese
Tajikistan Tajikistani Tajikistanis, Tajiks
Tanzania Tanzanian Tanzanians
Thailand Thai Thai
Togo Togolese Togolese
Tonga Tongan Tongans
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian, Tobagonian Trinidadians, Tobagonians
Tunisia Tunisian Tunisians
Turkey Turkish Turks
Turkmenistan Turkmen Turkmens
Turks and Caicos Islands none Turks and Caicos Islanders
Tuvalu Tuvaluan Tuvaluans
Uganda Ugandan Ugandans
Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainians
United Arab Emirates Emirati, Emirian Emiratis, Emirians
United Kingdom British Britons
United States American, U.S. Americans
Uruguay Uruguayan Uruguayans
Uzbekistan Uzbekistani, Uzbek Uzbekistanis, Uzbeks
Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu, Vanuatuan Ni-Vanuatu
Venezuela Venezuelan Venezuelans
Vietnam Vietnamese Vietnamese
Virgin Islands Virgin Island Virgin Islanders
Wales Welsh Welsh
Wallis and Futuna Wallisian, Futunan Wallisians, Futunans
Western Sahara Sahraw, Sahrawian, Sahraouian Sahrawis, Sahraouis
Yemen Yemeni Yemenis
Zambia Zambian Zambians
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Zimbabweans
Source: Wikipedia