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English grammar tables and examples

Use these tables to understand English grammar visually. The tables show the structures and word order and make it easier to remember them.

To be - present, past, future

To be - present (am, are, is)

To be - past (was, were)

To be - future (will be)

English tenses:

Active verb tenses summary

Simple Present Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Simple Past Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Causative verbs

Pronouns, noun and prepositional phrases, determiners, etc.

Personal Pronouns

Other Pronouns

Demonstratives: this, that, these, those

Existence and listing – countable and uncountable nouns

Articles - definite and indefinite

Specific and general - article usage

Determiners in noun phrases

Noun phrase

Prepositional phrase

Prepositional phrase as an adjunct

Active verb, passive verb and adjective form

Syntactic units: words, phrases, clauses, sentences, sentence chains:

Syntactic units

Word level

Phrase level

Clause level

Sentence level

Sentence chain level

Tags, short remarks, auxiliary repetition, agreement, disagreement

Agreements and disagreements with remarks

Question tags

Comment tags

Additions to remarks


What's the time?

Irregular verbs

Countries, nationalities, people, languages

To be - present, past, future

To be - present
Question words Predicate 1A Subject Predicate 1B Predicate 2 Other words
My mother is a language teacher.  
I am in class now.
The school is closed.
We are not students.
You aren't old.
Why are you not in the swimming pool with her?
What time is it?
Who is in the kindergarden with him at the moment?
Whose phone is this?
Whose friends are they?
Are your colleagues friendly?
Aren't I handsome?  
Is she not your English teacher?  

To be - past
Question words Predicate 1A Subject Predicate 1B Predicate 2 Other words
My father was a butcher.  
I was in class until 5.
The school was closed during the holiday.
We were not there.
You weren't nice to her.
Why were you not in the swimming pool this morning?
What time was it?
Who was at home with you yesterday?
Whose iPad was in your bag?
Whose parents were they?
Were your colleagues friendly?
Wasn't I on the list?  
Was she not your co-worker?  

To be - future
Question words Predicate 1A Subject Predicate 1B Predicate 2 Other words
My son will be a super star.  
I will be in class until 6.
The office will be closed in summer.
We will not be there.
You won't be her husband.
Why will you not be at the meeting tomorrow morning?
What time will the funeral be?
Who will be at home with you tomorrow?
Whose iPhone will be on the table?
Whose girlfriend will she be?
Will he be friendly?
Wonn't I be on the shift?  
Will she not be your employee?  

English tenses

Active verb tenses summary
Past Present Future
Simple Simple Past
I learnt
Simple Present
I learn
Simple Future
I will learn
Continuous /
Past Continuous
I was learning
Present Continuous
I am learning
Future Continuous
I will be learning
Perfect Past Perfect
I had learnt
Present Perfect
I have learnt
Future Perfect
I will have learnt
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been learning
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been learning
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been learning

Simple Present Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Frequency Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
My English tutor never drinks Chinese tea.
Ms Chan rarely finishes work at 8.
It doesn't usually do that.
I don't care about you.
Who answers the e-mails?
Which hand bag looks better?
What makes you angry?
Do they have a car?
Does your boyfriend speak Chinese or English?
Don't you understand why?
Why do you not always answer me quickly?
What do we finish with?

Time words for Simple Present Tense: never, always, every day, normally, often, seldom, rarely, sometimes, usually

Present Continuous Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
The English teacher is speaking in the classroom.
I am meeting the principal tomorrow.
They aren't writing.
Why are you not looking at us?
Who are we waiting for?
Who is licking my car?
What is happening here?
Whose students are coming the day after tomorrow?
Are your uncles playing table tennis?
Aren't you coming with us?
Is she not watching TV?

Time words for Present Continuous Tense: now, at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, right now, (or a future time for future plan).

Present Perfect Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Frequency Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
My aunt has never drunk Pepsi.
The tourists have already been to the post office.
The gold fish has just gone.  
I haven't seen them for 3 months.
  The native English speaker tutor has not applied for the teaching post yet.
Who has taken in my pen?
Which candidate has sent this resume?
What has made her do that?
Have your grandparents ever been to Hong Kong?
Has your classmate spoken to her yet?
Haven't you cleaned the toilet yet?
Why haven't you     notified me?
What has she done this week?

Time words for Present Perfect Tense: already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now, this morning, for two years, since 2012.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
(auxiliary verb)
Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
The speaker has been speaking since 9 o'clock.
They have been listening to that music for 3 hours.
Who has been waiting for me there for 2 hours?
How long have you   been saving money for your notebook?
What has the language instructor been doing this afternoon?

Time words for Present Perfect Continuous Tense: all day, for six years, since April, how long?, the whole week.

Simple Past Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
  Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
My niece   drank a lot of beer yesterday.
The engineer   started the engine.
His stupid idea did not   work.  
I didn't do anything.
Who visited your weekend house?
Which pillow looked better?
What made you do that?
Did you use whatsapp in 2012?
Did your English teacher teach the verb tenses?
Didn't you read the book?
Why did you not   write about the specification?
What did we learn yesterday?

Time words for Simple Past Tense: yesterday, 4 minutes ago, in 2000, the other day, last Friday, the day before yesterday, in October.

Past Continuous Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
The English teacher was speaking in the classroom.
I was meeting the principal at 4 p.m..
They weren't writing.
Why were you not looking for us?
Who were we waiting for?
Who was painting the bike?
What was happening when you entered the room?
Whose parents were sitting there?
Were your uncles playing music?
Weren't you eating with them?
Was she not watching TV?

Time words for Past Continuous Tense: at that moment, at 5 o'clock, a clause with simple past tense, a clause with another simple continuous tense

Past Perfect Tense
Question words Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Subject Predicate
(auxiliary verb)
Frequency Predicate (Verb) Predicate and/or other words
My aunt had never drunk Pepsi.
The tourists had been to the post office before 2 p.m.
The thief had left before the police arrived.  
The groom had not seen the bride before our wedding day.
  The shop assistant had not applied for another job.
Who had taken my skate board?
Which candidate had sent this letter before the ad?
What had made her do that?
Had your parents been to Hong Kong before 1997?
Had your classmate spoken to her before I spoke to her?
Hadn't you cleaned the toilet before breakfast?
Why hadn't you     notified me before the deadline?
What had she accomplished before you hired her?

Time words for Past Perfect Tense: before, when

Causative verbs

Causatives are main verbs that cause people or objects to do something or cause things to change.

Subject Causative verb Object: someone, something Verb Other
You made me feel happy.
She will make your TV work again.
She was made to swim every day.
I can get Dad to take you to New York.
Let's get the doors painted first.
We had our teacher change her mind.
I will have my membership renewed.
My boss let us leave earlier today.
Let the engine cool.
I will help you do your homework.
I will help you to do your homework.
I allowed him to use your car.

The most common causatives are:

make + base form of the verb,
to be made (passive causative) + infinitive,
get + infinitive (after a person),
get + past participle (after an object),
have + base form of the verb (after a person),
have + past participle (after an object),
let + base form of the verb,
help + base form of the verb or infinitive; the base form of the verb is more common.
allow + infinitive,
Other causative verbs are: authorise, cause, enable, force, give someone permission, give someone the right, hold, keep, permit, and require.

Personal Pronouns
I me my mine myself
you you your yours yourself
he him his his himself
she her her hers herself
it it its its itself
we us our ours ourselves
you you your yours yourselves
they them their theirs themselves

Other pronouns
Pronoun types Forms Examples
Relative pronouns which, whose, whoever, whomever, who, whom, that the teacher that we like, the restaurant where I usually have dinner, the man whose wife has died
Interrogative Pronouns what, which, who, whom, whose Who is that? Whose car is it?
Demonstrative pronouns this, that, these, those this map, those roses
Indefinite Pronouns {some-, any-, every-, no-} + {-thing, -one, -body}; many, more, both, most; one, oneself somebody, no-one, everyone, anything; One does not drive one's own car. I like both. I can accept most.
Reciprocal pronoun each other, one another He and she hate each other's family.
Negative pronoun None I want none.
Intensive pronoun yourself, herself, himself, themselves, ourselves Tom himself cleaned the whole house. (He did it alone.)

A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase

Demonstratives: this, that, these, those
Referring to subjects and objects Close Far Subject pronoun Object pronoun
For uncountable or singular countable noun this that it it
For countable plural noun these those they them
Place (over) here (over) there --- ---

This is how to use this, that, these, those:

  1. We use this, that, these, those to identify and refer to things that the listener(s) can see, hear, smell, touch or taste now. At the same time, when we say these words we point to those things with our hands or refer to them in other ways (eye movement, body language) so that our conversation partner knows what we are talking about.

    You do not need to do this reference gesture if something is obvious for both of you. For instance, if a black cat runs in front of you and both of you can see it and there is no other cat there.

    Typically, it is enough to use this, that, these, those just once and then people in the rest of the conversation use pronouns (it, they or them), although they can use demonstratives again, too.
    • Look at that car. It's a BMW. It's very expensive. I want to steal it.
    • Peter: What's this?
      Julia: It's a web cam. It's mine. I bought it yesterday.
    • Emily: Do you know these people?
      Art: Yes, they are my relatives. I like them.
    • Questions: What's that? or What's this?
      The typical, standard answer: It's a cat.
      Other possible answers: That's a cat. This is a cat.
    • Questions: What are those? or What are these?
      The typical, standard answer: They're cars.
      Other possible answers: Those are cars. These are cars.

    When you use demonstratives and pronouns make sure that the other person knows what you are talking about. That is their functions.

  2. We use this and these to talk about people or things near us and we may add the words here or over here. We use that and those to talk about people or things that are farther away and we may add the words there or over there.
    • This is my bag here. And that is her bag over there.
    • I can see these people in the first row but I cannot see those people in the back row.

    However, this and that, these and those can refer to things and people at the same distance. In this case "that" means "the other one" and "those" means "the other ones". In the examples below everything is in the same distance, next to each other.
    • Salesman: Do you want this one?
      Customer: No, I want that one.
    • I like these but I don't like those.
  3. Demonstratives can be used to express emotions. This and these express positive feelings while that and those negative feelings. They express metaphorical distance or closeness.
    • Are you going to meet that female friend of yours again? (dislike, jealousy)
    • Those beggars are here again. I do not like them.
    • I love this new teacher.
    • These (hats) are wonderful.
  4. Use "that" and "those" to refer back to something that somebody said or did or obvious from the context of the conversation but cannot be sensed now (intangibles):
    • A: Can I buy you a drink?
      B: That's a great idea.
    • A: I am very angry with my boss.
      B: Why is that?

    However, when you quote someone use this or these.
    • This is what she said to me, "I don't like you. Never did!"
    • These are his exact words, "You're fired!"
  5. Demonstratives can be used when we talk about time related things.
    We can use demonstratives in time phrases; sometimes without prepositions:
    • A: I saw you this morning.
      B: Yes, I saw you in the morning, too.
    • this afternoon - in the afternoon.
    • This week, this month, this year.
    • Those were the days my friend. We thought they'd never end.
    • That fatal night changed my whole life.

    If something is near in time, we tend to use this or these while if we refer to the past or the future, we use that or those.
    • This wine is great but that wine we had yesterday was terrible.
    • Those courses at the university were useless.
    • That'll be the day when I die.
  6. When we introduce people personally, we use demonstratives first, instead of the pronouns he, she or they. After the first reference we use personal pronouns. It is not rude to use this or that to refer to someone at introduction.
    • This is Oscar. (Don't say, "He is Oscar.")
    • This is Mr Peterson. He is my boss. I have worked for him for two years.
    • This is Eddy and this is Katie. (Do not say, "These are Eddy and Katie.")
    • These are my colleagues, Édouard Manet and Claude Monet. (Do not say, "These are Édouard Manet and Claude Monet.")
    • That's my father out there in the garden.
  7. On the telephone, on the door phone or when someone knocks on the door, when we introduce ourselves at the beginning of a conversation or ask the other person's name we use this, that instead of I and you. The answer for this type of question uses "it" and not "I".
    • This is Ludwig van Beethoven from Germany. May I speak to the music producer, please?
    • Hi, this is James Greedy. I'm calling from ABC Insurance.
    • (At the two sides of the door) Old lady: Who's that?
      Robber: It's the postman. I've brought money for you.
    • A: Who's this?
      B: It's me, Tom.
  8. This, that, these, those can function as "determiners" or "pronouns".
    They function as "determiners" when they come before nouns in noun phrases.
    • This pen is red.
    • Those big melons are mine.
    • Whose are these old books?

    They function as "pronouns" when they are a single demonstrative word. A demonstrative pronoun takes the place of a noun, a noun phrase, a set of noun phrases, an activity, an event, or a situation. This and that function as "it" and these and those function as "they" or "them".
    • A: I bought this hat.
      B: I like that hat. = I like that. = I like it.
    • A: Look at my flowers.
      B: Your flowers are beautiful. = These are beautiful. = They are beautiful.
      C: I like those. = I like them.
    • Joe: I love when she smiles.
      Mary: I love that, too.
  9. We can use demonstratives and pronouns for style and dramatic effects to get attention. We know that the other person does not know what we are talking about. We force them to get involved.
    • A: Now, this is great!
      B: What's great?
    • A: I don't like that! (I don't like it!)
      B: What? What are you talking about? What don't you like?
    • A: I met this guy in the park ...
  10. We can use demonstratives to refer to shared, common knowledge or new information.

    You can use "that" or "those" instead of "the" to refer to shared or common knowledge in a story or explanation.
    • Do you remember that stupid guy from the party last week?
    • Those union workers are just monsters.

    You can use "this" instead of "a" or "an" to refer to something important or recent, or to introduce a new element in a story:
    • This car just came out of nowhere.
    • He suddenly pulled out this big, sharp knife.
  11. Use this and that with singular and uncountable nouns. Use these and those with plural nouns.

    However, use singular demonstratives if the first word in a list of words requires singular demonstrative, even if the second, third etc. words are plural.
    • This is my pen and books.
    • These are my books and pen.
    • That is my phone, wallet, bag and shoes.
    • Those are my shoes, phone, wallet and bag.

Existence and listing – there is, there are
Uncountable noun Countable noun
Countable noun
+ There is some milk in the fridge. There is an English tutor in each F6 class. There are some students there.
- There isn't any cheese at home. There isn't a dictionary on the shelf. There aren't any native English teachers in that school.
? Is there any money here?
Yes, there is.
No, there isn't.
How much money is there?
There's a lot
Is there a book here?
Yes, there is.
No, there isn't.
How many books are there?
There are a lot.
Are there any schools nearby?
Yes, there are.
No, there aren't.
How many schools are there?
There are a lot.

Articles - definite and indefinite
Types Forms Examples Description
Definite article the the moon,
the chairs,
the Pope
It refers to something the listener can identify because the speaker has already mentioned it or because it is unique in the context or there is only one.
Indefinite articles a, an a hotel,
an hour,
an umbrella,
a unit
It indicates that the noun is not a particular one identifiable to the listener. It may be something that the speaker is mentioning for the first time, or its precise identity may be irrelevant, or the speaker may be making a general statement.

What do the following sentences mean?

  1. I am manager.
  2. I am the manager.
  3. I am a manager.

1, "I am manager." This sentence is wrong. Usually you cannot use a countable noun in singular form without a determiner. A noun phrase usually consists of a determiner and a noun as a minimum.

2-3, "I am a manager" and "I am the manager" both have valid syntax, that is, they can be correct. Whether they are really correct depends on the situation.

2, "I am the manager." Here the speaker assumes that the listener knows the context, that is, what organisation the speaker is talking about. For instance, if the speaker has already mentioned her own company or they are in her office now, the speaker can say, "I am the manager," meaning I am the manager here. Or I am the manager at the company we are talking about. My company. The "The" also refers to that there is only one manager in that place and that one manager is me.

3, "I am a manager." Here there is no any defined context, that is, the speaker assumes that the listener does not know where she works. It is also possible that both know where she works but there are more than one manager there and she is just one of them. Again, either the situation, the context or the company is not defined or if defined, then there are two or more managers there. I am one manager and there are other managers, too.

Specific and general - aricle usage
What the speaker is speaking about If the speaker doesn't think that the listener knows what or whom the speaker is talking about If the speaker thinks that the listener knows what or whom the speaker is talking about
Specific "A" (with countable nouns)
A man was looking for you.
The cat is swimming.
General statement
Singular form
n.a. "A"
A cat can swim.
General statement
Plural form
n.a. "-"
Cats can swim.

The table above shows general rules. However, there are exceptions. For example, with a lot of institutions we use "the" even if the other person does not know which specific one I am talking about: I am going to the theatre / to the swimming pool / to the cinema / to the market, etc.

Determiners in noun phrases
Determiner types Determiner examples Noun phrase (determiner + noun)
Article the, a, an the bus, the cars, a bike
Demonstrative this, that, these, those those ideas, this pen
Possessive my, your, his, her, its, our, their my friends, its windows
Possessive nouns 's, s' Peter's brother, the boy's teacher, the girls' coach
Quantifiers several, many, little, much, few, a lot of, no, some, any a lot of people, little water, any money, no time
Numerals three three bananas
Distributive pronoun each, either, neither, both each bird, both doors
Interrogative which, whose, what, how many whose sister, which office, how many days
No determiner - "Peter likes cats." "Money talks."
Only preposition on, by, at, in on foot, by taxi, at home, in danger
Some names Leeds castle, London airport
Combinations all the, the many all the three mistakes, the many unanswered questions
After the noun room 52, section B, President Kennedy, Professor Moore
Before and after the noun in the year 2525, that friend of yours, a box of chocolate

A determiner is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and expresses the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

Noun phrase
Type of modifier Determiner Optional
Head (noun) Post-modifier
Adjective that funny cat
Adjective phrase an extremely large watermelon
Present participle drinking water
Present participle the typhoon coming
Past participle a wanted man
Past participial phrase five pens filled with red ink
Noun some collage students
Prepositional phrase in the concert hall
Prepositional phrase his presentation about Hong Kong
Adverb Jane's only lover
Adverb the buildings nearby
Relative clause the film (which) we saw yesterday
Dependent clause the belief that God exists
Infinite phrase all my desire to play well
Adjective as head the homeless
Adjective as head the English at home
Pronoun as head nobody in particular
Pronoun as head those green ones
Pronoun as head the one in the middle
Required post-modifier a sense of fear
A long example: those three rather quiet but demanding young university students with whom we talked this morning
Examples for one word noun phrase cows; him; Joe; London; milk

A noun phrase is a phrase which has a noun, an indefinite pronoun or an adjective as its head word and zero or more other words. The whole noun phrase can be replaced by a pronoun.

Modifiers are usually optional. They give extra information about the noun. But sometimes a post-modifier is required to complete the meaning of a noun and in this case it is called a complement. e.g. 'the claim' needs a complement 'the claim that he stole her money'

Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other or attached to one another to form a chain.

Prepositional phrase
Preposition Determiner Optional
Noun, pronoun, gerund, clause
on time
with everlasting love
in the dirty, crowded street
from Adam
for me
about what we dislike
without drinking
by taxi
through a very beautifully designed park
along with other people
in addition to his crimes
in spite of her weaknesses

Prepositional phrases are groups of words containing prepositions.

A prepositional phrase usually starts with a preposition. However, some prepositions, called postpositions, stand behind the object. For example, 'a week ago', 'her weaknesses notwithstanding'.
There is a third category called circumposition where two prepositions are used together before and after a word. For example, the 'from ... on' pair in 'from now on'.
The general term for preposition, postposition and circumposition is adposition but in everyday usage preposition is used for all the three.

A prepositional phrases can function as an adverb or an adjective.

Prepositional phrase as an adjunct
Type of referred word Referred word Prepositional phrase
Verb drank in the room for hours
Verb work during the week
Noun e-mail from my boss
Noun the lake in December
Adjective angry with you
Adjective afraid of big dogs
Predicative expression are against the government
Predicative expression must be at home

The referred word is the word to which the prepositional phrase is an adjunct.

Active verb, passive verb and adjective form
Active verb Passive verb Adjective
This book interests me. I am interested in this book This is an interesting book.
The teacher bores me. I am bored (by the teacher). The teacher is boring.
The story amuses me. I am amused (by the story). It's an amusing story.

Syntactic units: words, phrases, clauses, sentences, sentence chains

Syntactic units
Sentence chain

English grammar rules can be grouped and studied at five levels:
words < phrases < clauses < sentences < sentence chains.

The < symbol indicates that there is usually a natural progression in size of the syntactic units in spoken and written messages. However, it is not always the case. For example, a phrase can contain a clause and a sentence can be just one word.

There are specific grammar rules at each level, starting from the phrase level, that tell us how to form longer message elements by combining shorter ones from the same or other syntactic levels. For instance, how to combine words, phrases and even clauses into a longer phrase.

1, Word level - word classes

Words can be sorted into word classes depending on what roles they play in the sentence. The word classes are noun, verb, adverb, adjective, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, etc.

A word class can have sub-classes. For example, there are subject pronouns, object pronouns and possessive pronouns.

Word level analysis
subject pronoun adverb verb adjective noun preposition object pronoun
He quickly made hot tea for her.

2, Phrase level

A phrase is two or more words that do not contain the subject-predicate pair to form a clause but are connected together by grammar rules, meaning or logic and they function as a unit.

Phrase types: noun phrase, adjective phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, infinitive phrase, present and past participle phrase, gerund phrase, and exclamation / interjection phrase.

A phrase has a main part called head and other parts that are referred to by different names: specifier, modifier, dependent, object or complement. Sometimes one word is also considered a phrase for analytical purpose.

Phrase level analysis
noun phrase verb phrase adverbial phrase prepositional phrase
noun phrase prepositional phrase
preposition noun phrase preposition noun phrase
The young driver with the glasses was driving quite carelessly through the park.

3, Clause level

A clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete thought. A standard, complete clause has a subject and a predicate. The predicate includes a verb. Clauses can be embedded inside phrases and vice versa. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.

Clause level analysis
subject predicate optional parts
The very ill patient gave the doctor his test report a week ago.

4, Sentence level

A standard, complete English sentence has at least one independent clause.

An independent clause is the clause that can stand alone as a sentence.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides an independent clause with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Dependent clauses include noun clauses, relative (adjectival) clauses, and adverbial clauses.

A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses.
A compound sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation, or both.
A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
A compound–complex sentence consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause.
An incomplete sentence does not have a subject and/or a predicate.

Sentence level analysis
Sentence type First clause Conjuction Other clauses
Simple: one independent clause She went to Ocean Park.
Compound: two independent clauses She gambles and she smokes.
an independent + a dependent clause
She eats a lot of vegetables that she usually buys at the market.
Compound–complex: two independent clauses + one dependent clause She eats a lot of hamburgers but her boyfriend, who is more health-conscious, never eats junk food.
Non-standard Happy birthday!

5, Sentence chain level

A sentence can influence the grammar and words we use in other related sentences. The related sentences do not need to be adjacent sentences and don't need to be said by the same person.

Look at this example.
Jane: Have you ever been to Japan? It is a beautiful country.
Mary: Yes, I have.

The word "it" in Jane's second sentence is related to the word "Japan" in her first sentence. The words "I" and "have" in Mary's answer are related to the "you" and the present perfect tense, respectively, in Jane's question.

Agreements and disagreements with remarks

Agreement with affirmative remarks
Affirmative (positive) remark Agreement
The boss is stupid. Yes, he is.
You work too hard. Yes, I do.
Your daughter can walk. Of course, she can.
There may be a strike. Yes, there may.
We have met before. Of course, we have.
That's Judy. Oh, so it is.
The flat will be expensive. Yes, of course, it will.
We must pay on time. Of course, we must.
You should have known. Yes, I should.
The windows might have been open. Yes, they might.
There was plenty of milk. Yes, there was.

Use 'Yes', 'Of course', Yes, of course', 'So', 'Oh, so' + affirmative auxiliary to agree with positive (affirmative) remarks.

'Need' is mainly used in negative form (needn't) and not in affirmative (positive sentence). In affirmative there is almost always a negative word before 'need', for example, nothing, no one, nobody. For instance, "Nobody need know that."

Disagreement with affirmative remarks
Affirmative (positive) remark Disagreement
The boss is stupid. No, he isn't.
You work too hard. Oh no, I don't.
Your daughter can walk. Oh no, she can't.
There may be a strike. No, there may not.
We have met before. No, we haven't.
That's Judy. Oh no, it isn't.
The flat will be expensive. Oh no, it won't.
We must pay on time. No, we needn't.
You should have known. No, I shouldn't.
The windows might have been open. No, they might not.
There was plenty of milk. Oh no, there wasn't.

Use 'No', 'Oh, no' + negative auxiliary to disagree with positive (affirmative) remarks.

"Must" is obligation and its opposite is lack of obligation (needn't).

Agreement with negative remarks
Negative remark Agreement
The boss isn't stupid. No, he isn't.
You don't work too hard. No, I don't.
Your daughter can't walk. No, she can't.
There may not be a strike. No, there may not.
We haven't met before. No, we haven't.
That isn't Judy. No, it isn't.
The flat won't be expensive. No, it won't.
We mustn't pay late. No, we mustn't.
They needn't read all the pages. No, they needn't.
You shouldn't have known. No, I shouldn't.
The windows might not have been open. No, they might not.
There wasn't plenty of milk. No, there wasn't.

Use 'no' + negative auxiliary to agree with negative remarks.

Disagreement with negative remarks
Negative remark Disagreement
The boss isn't stupid. Oh yes, he is.
You don't work too hard. Oh yes, I do.
Your daughter can't walk. Yes, she can.
There may not be a strike. Yes, there may.
We haven't met before. Yes, we have.
That isn't Judy. Yes, it is.
The flat won't be expensive. Yes, it will.
We mustn't pay late. Oh yes, we can.
They needn't read all the pages. Oh, yes, they must.
You shouldn't have known. Yes, I should.
The windows might not have been open. Yes, they might.
There wasn't plenty of milk. Oh, yes, there was.

Use 'Yes', 'Oh, yes' + positive auxiliary to disagree with negative remarks. The auxiliary is stressed so do not contract.

"Mustn't" is obligation and its opposite is an option or choice (can).

"Needn't" expresses the lack of obligation and its opposite is obligation (must, have to).

Question tags

Question tags are short additions to sentences for asking for agreement or confirmation. After affirmative statements use negative interrogative (+,-). After negative statements use ordinary interrogative (-,+).

Don't confuse question tags with comment tags, which are (+,+) or (-,-). Question tags are used for asking for a response. Comment tags are used for giving a response.

Question tags with affirmative and negative sentences
Affirmative (positive) statements (+,-) Negative statements (-,+)
He likes me, doesn't he? He doesn't like me, does he?
You've been here for long, haven't you? You haven't been here for long, have you?
Your daughter can walk, can't she? Your daughter can't walk, can she?
There are books on the desk, aren't there? There aren't books on the desk, are there?
That's Judy, isn't it? That isn't Judy, is it?
You would tell me, wouldn't you? You wouldn't tell me, would you?
He has got twins, hasn't he? He hasn't got twins, has he?
The painting must be worth millions, mustn't it? I mustn't go out, must I?
They'd better arrive on time, hadn't they? They'd better not arrive on time, had they?
He'd rather break up than stay together, wouldn't he? He'd rather not break up than leave her, would he?
He'd rather she broke up with her boyfriend, wouldn't he? He'd rather she didn't break up with her boyfriend, would he?

The grammar rules to answering to questions with question tags are the same as the rules for Agreements and disagreements with remarks.

Special cases of question tags

Statements containing: no (as adjective), no one, nobody, nothing, none, neither, scarcely, hardly, hardly ever, barely, seldom are regarded as negative sentences so ordinary interrogative tag is used after them.

When the subject is anybody, anyone, no one, none, neither, everyone, everybody, somebody, someone the pronoun 'they' is used.

Special question tags with affirmative and negative sentences
Affirmative (positive) statements (+,-) Negative statements (-,+)
I'm fat, aren't I? I am not fat, am I?
Let's go to dance, shall we? Let's not to go to dance, shall we?
Sugar is added, isn't it? No sugar is added, is it?
I often lie, don't I? I hardly ever lie, do I?
You know them, don't you? You hardly know them, do you?
Something has happened, hasn't it? Nothing has happened, has it?
I think somebody likes her, don't they? I don't think anybody likes her, do they?
He thinks somebody likes her, doesn't he? He doesn't think anybody likes her, does he?
Some of your friends are doctors, aren't they? None of your friends are doctors, are they?
Everyone would agree, wouldn't they? No one would agree, would they?
Everybody knows, don't they? Nobody knows, do they?
Anybody could steal your wallet, couldn't they? Nobody could steal your wallet, could they?

Comment tags

Comment tags are short additions to sentences. After affirmative statements use ordinary interrogative (+,+). After negative statements use negative interrogative (-,-).

Don't confuse comment tags with question tags, which are (+,-) or (-,+). Question tags are used for asking for a response. Comment tags are used for giving a response.

The meaning of a comment tag depends on the tone of voice used by the speaker. They look like questions syntactically but they are not semantically. They are comments, not questions and they do not require an answer.

Comment tags can be used in two ways:

1, Comment tags can express that the speaker understands the situation or the story or the related facts. It is more of a logical, intellectual response rather than emotional. The response does not need to match grammatically with the previous sentence.

Comment tags for expressing understanding or noting facts
Person A Person B (comment tags)
I arrived too late. You didn't meet her, didn't you? = Oh, so you didn't meet her.
I don't have a car any more. You've sold your car, have you? = Oh, so you've sold your car.
They didn't wake up when the fire started. They were sleeping at 9 a.m., were they? = So they were sleeping at 9 a.m.
I will break your arms if you don't pay. You aren't joking, aren't you? = I understand that you are threatening me.

2, Comment tags are mainly used to express the speaker's reaction to a statement. The comment tag must grammatically correspond to the syntax of the sentence it refers to. Sometimes this type of comment tag means the same as 'Really!', 'Indeed!'.

Comment tags often express the speaker's emotions like anger, amusement, admiration, surprise, interest, disinterest, suspicion, disbelief etc. and the listener creates the meaning based of the tone of voice. The 'auxiliary - pronoun' section can be 'doubled' to express stronger emotions.

Comment tags for emotional reactions
Person A Person B (comment tags)
I will apply for that job. Will you?
She can speak six languages? Can she?
That was my boss. Was it?
I haven't met him. Haven't you?
I called your teacher. Oh, you did, did you?
I have got a new car now. Oh, you have, have you?
He doesn't have time for that. Oh, he doesn't, doesn't he?
They had left before you came. Oh, they had, had they?

Additions to remarks

Addition can be spoken by the same person who said the remark or by another person.

Affirmative additions to affirmative remarks

There are two types:

1, Subject + auxiliary + too

2, So + auxiliary + subject

Affirmative additions to affirmative remarks
Person A Person B
Mary went to England last year and Joe did, too.
Mary went to England last year. Joe did, too. = So did Joe.
I am having breakfast and so is my mother.
I am having breakfast. So is your mother. = Your mother is, too.
She will hate me and you will, too.
She will hate me. I will, too. = So will I.
She has seen that film and so has he.
She has seen that film. So has he. = He has, too.
You would have liked that and I would, too.
You would have liked that. You would, too. = So would you.
The passengers were hurt and so was the driver.
The passengers were hurt. So was the driver. = The driver was, too.

Affirmative additions to negative remarks

But + subject + auxiliary

Affirmative additions to negative remarks
Person A Person B
Mary didn't go to England last year but Joe did.
Mary didn't go to England last year. But Joe did.
I am not having breakfast now but my mother is.
I am not having breakfast now. But your mother is.
She won't hate me but you will.
She won't hate me. But I will.
She hasn't seen that film yet but we have.
She hasn't seen that film yet. But we have.
You wouldn't have liked that but I would.
You wouldn't have liked that. But I would.
The passengers weren't hurt but the driver was.
The passengers weren't hurt. But the driver was.

Negative additions to affirmative remarks

But + subject + negative auxiliary

Negative additions to affirmative remarks
Person A Person B
Mary went to England last year but Joe didn't.
Mary went to England last year. But Joe didn't.
I am having breakfast but my mother isn't.
I am having breakfast. But your mother isn't.
She will hate me but you won't.
She will hate me. But I won't.
She has seen that film but he hasn't.
She has seen that film. But he hasn't.
You would have liked that but I wouldn't.
You would have liked that. But you wouldn't.
The passengers were hurt but the driver wasn't.
The passengers were hurt. But the driver wasn't.

Negative additions to negative remarks

There are 4 types:

1, Neither + auxiliary + subject

2, Nor + auxiliary + subject

3, Subject + negative auxiliary + either

4, Subject + whole verb in negative + object (if there is one) + either

The neither and the nor types are exactly the same. So nor = neither.

Negative additions to negative remarks
Person A Person B
Mary didn't go to England last year, neither did Joe.
Mary didn't go to England last year. Neither did Joe. = Nor did Joe. = Joe didn't either. = Joe didn't go either.
I am not having breakfast now; my mother isn't either.
I am not having breakfast now. Neither is your mother. = Nor is your mother. = Your mother isn't either. = Your mother isn't having breakfast either.
She won't hate me, nor will you.
She won't hate me. Nor will I. = Neither will I. = I won't either. = I won't hate you, either.
She hasn't seen that film, neither have we.
She hasn't seen that film yet. Neither have we. = Nor have we. = We haven't either. = We haven't seen it either.
You wouldn't have liked that; I wouldn't either.
You wouldn't have liked that. Neither would you. = Nor would you. = We wouldn't either. = We wouldn't like it either.
The passengers weren't hurt, nor was the driver.
The passengers weren't hurt. Neither was the driver. = Nor was the driver. = The driver wasn't either. = The driver wasn't hurt either.

What's the time?
It’s …
3.05 five past three 2.55 five to three
4.10 ten past four 3.50 ten to four
5.15 quarter past five 4.45 quarter to five
6.20 twenty past six 5.40 twenty to six
7.25 twenty-five past seven 6.35 twenty-five to seven
8.30 half past eight 9.00 nine o’clock

Irregular verbs
Infinitive Past Past participle
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken/awaked
be, is, am, are was, were been
bear bore borne
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bid bade/bid bidden/bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived/dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit/lighted lit/lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mislay mislaid mislaid
mistake mistook mistaken
pay paid paid
prove proved proved/proven
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shed shed shed
shine shone/shined shone/shined
shoot shot shot
show showed shown/showed
shrink shrank/shrunk shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
slit slit slit
speak spoke spoken
speed sped/speeded sped/speeded
spend spent spent
spin spun spun
spit spit/spat spit/spat
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang/sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank/stunk stunk
strike struck struck/stricken
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden/trod
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
upset upset upset
wake woke/waked woken/waked
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

Countries, nationalities, people, languages
Country name Language or nationality People
Abkhazia Abkhaz, Abkhazian Abkhazians
Afghanistan Afghan Afghans
Albania Albanian Albanians
Algeria Algerian Algerians
American Samoa American Samoan American Samoans
Andorra Andorran Andorrans
Angola Angolan Angolans
Anguilla Anguillan Anguillans
Antigua and Barbuda Antiguan, Barbudan Antiguans, Barbudans
Argentina Argentine, Argentinean, Argentinian Argentines, Argentineans, Argentinians
Armenia Armenian Armenians
Aruba Aruban Arubans
Australia Australian Australians
Austria Austrian Austrians
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani, Azeri Azerbaijanis, Azeris
Bahamas Bahamian Bahamians
Bahrain Bahraini Bahrainis
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Bangladeshis
Barbados Barbadian  ("Bajan") Barbadians
Belarus Belarusian Belarusians
Belgium Belgian Belgians
Belize Belizean Belizeans
Benin Beninese, Beninois Beninese, Beninois
Bermuda Bermudian, Bermudan Bermudians, Bermudans
Bhutan Bhutanese Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian Bolivians
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Bosniak, Herzegovinian Bosnians, Bosniaks, Herzegovinians
Botswana Motswana (pl. Batswana), Botswanan Batswana, Botswanans
Brazil Brazilian Brazilians
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Island British Virgin Islanders
Brunei Bruneian Bruneians
Bulgaria Bulgarian Bulgarians
Burkina Fasoa Burkinabè/ Burkinabé Burkinabè/ Burkinabé
Burma, Myanmar Burmese Bamar, Burmese
Burundi Burundian Burundians
Cambodia Cambodian Cambodians
Cameroon Cameroonian Cameroonians
Canada Canadian Canadians
Cape Verde Cape Verdean Cape Verdeans
Cayman Islands Caymanian Caymanians
Central African Republic Central African Central Africans
Chad Chadian Chadians
Chile Chilean Chileans
People's Republic of China Chinese Chinese
Christmas Island Christmas Island Christmas Islanders
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Island Cocos Islanders
Colombia Colombian Colombians
Comoros Comorian Comorians
Dem. Republic of the Congo Congolese, Congo Congolese
Republic of the Congo    
Cook Islands Cook Island, Cook Islands Cook Islanders
Costa Rica Costa Rican Costa Ricans
Côte d'Ivoire Ivorian Ivorians
Croatia Croatian Croatians, Croats
Cuba Cuban Cubans
Cyprus Cypriot Cypriots
Czech Republic Czech Czechs
Denmark Danish Danes
Djibouti Djiboutian Djiboutians
Dominica Dominicand Dominicansd
Dominican Republic Dominicane Dominicanse
East Timor Timorese Timorese
Ecuador Ecuadorian Ecuadorians
Egypt Egyptian Egyptians
El Salvador Salvadoran Salvadorans
England English English
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinean, Equatoguinean Equatorial Guineans, Equatoguineans
Eritrea Eritrean Eritreans
Estonia Estonian Estonians
Ethiopia Ethiopian Ethiopians
Falkland Islands Falkland Island Falkland Islanders
Faroe Islands Faroese Faroese
Fiji Fijian Fijians
Finland Finnish Finns
France French French (or Frenchman/ Frenchwoman)
French Guiana French Guianese French Guianese
French Polynesia French Polynesian French Polynesians, Tahitians
Gabon Gabonese Gabonese
Gambia Gambian Gambians
Georgia Georgian Georgians
Germany German Germans
Ghana Ghanaian Ghanaians
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltarians
Great Britain British Britons
Greece Greek, Hellenic Greeks, Hellenes
Greenland Greenlandic Greenlanders
Grenada Grenadian Grenadians
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Guadeloupians
Guam Guamanian Guamanians
Guatemala Guatemalan Guatemalans
Guinea Guinean Guineans
Guyana Guyanese Guyanese
Haiti Haitian Haitians
Honduras Honduran Hondurans
Hong Kong Hong Kong, Hongkongese Hongkongers, Hongkongese
Hungary Hungarian Hungarians
Iceland Icelandic Icelanders
India Indian Indians
Indonesia Indonesian Indonesians
Iran Iranian, Persian Iranians, Persians
Iraq Iraqi Iraqis
Ireland Irish Irish
Isle of Man Manx Manx
Israel Israeli Israelis
Italy Italian Italians
Jamaica Jamaican Jamaicans
Japan Japanese Japanese
Jordan Jordanian Jordanians
Kazakhstan Kazakh, Kazakhstani Kazakhstanis, Kazakhs
Kenya Kenyan Kenyans
Kiribati I-Kiribati I-Kiribati
North Korea North Korean Koreans
South Korea South Korean  
Kosovo Kosovar, Kosovan Kosovars
Kuwait Kuwaiti Kuwaitis
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstani, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz Kyrgyzstanis, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz
Laos Laotian, Lao Laotians, Laos
Latvia Latvian Latvians, Letts
Lebanon Lebanese Lebanese
Lesotho Basotho Basotho
Liberia Liberian Liberians
Libya Libyan Libyans
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Liechtensteiners
Lithuania Lithuanian Lithuanians
Luxembourg Luxembourg, Luxembourgish Luxembourgers
Macau Macanese, Chinese Macanese, Chinese
Republic of Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians
Madagascar Malagasy Malagasy
Malawi Malawian Malawians
Malaysia Malaysian Malaysians
Maldives Maldivian Maldivians
Mali Malian Malians
Malta Maltese Maltese
Marshall Islands Marshallese Marshallese
Martinique Martiniquais, Martinican Martiniquais
Mauritania Mauritanian Mauritanians
Mauritius Mauritian Mauritians
Mayotte Mahoran Mahorais
Mexico Mexican Mexicans
Micronesia, Federated States of Micronesian Micronesians
Moldova Moldovan Moldovans
Monaco Monégasque, Monacan Monégasques, Monacans
Mongolia Mongolian Mongolians, Mongols
Montenegro Montenegrin Montenegrins
Montserrat Montserratian Montserratians
Morocco Moroccan Moroccans
Mozambique Mozambican Mozambicans
Namibia Namibian Namibians
Nauru Nauruan Nauruans
Nepal Nepali Nepalese
Netherlands Dutch Dutch
New Caledonia New Caledonian New Caledonians
New Zealand New Zealand New Zealanders
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Nicaraguans
Niue Niuean Niueans
Niger Nigerien Nigeriens
Nigeria Nigerian Nigerians
Norway Norwegian Norwegians
Northern Ireland Northern Irish / British / Irish British / Irish / Northern Irish
Northern Marianas Northern Marianan Northern Marianans
Oman Omani Omanis
Pakistan Pakistani Pakistanis
Palestine Palestinian Palestinians
Palau Palauan Palauans
Panama Panamanian Panamanians
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean, Papuan Papua New Guineans, Papuans
Paraguay Paraguayan Paraguayans
Peru Peruvian Peruvians
Philippines Philippine, Filipino Filipinos, Filipinas
Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Islanders
Poland Polish Poles
Portugal Portuguese Portuguese
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Puerto Ricans, Boricuas
Qatar Qatari Qataris
Republic of Ireland Irish / Southern Irish Irish / Southern Irish
Réunion Réunionese, Réunionnais Réunionese, Réunionnais
Romania Romanian Romanians
Russia Russian Russians
Rwanda Rwandan Rwandans
St. Helena St. Helenian St. Helenians
St. Kitts and Nevis Kittitian, Nevisian Kittitians, Nevisians
St. Lucia St. Lucian St. Lucians
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais
St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Vincentian, Vincentian St. Vincentians, Vincentians
Samoa Samoan Samoans
San Marino Sammarinese Sammarinese
São Tomé and Príncipe São Toméan São Toméans
Saudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian Saudis, Saudi Arabians
Scotland Scots, Scottish Scots, Scotsmen
Senegal Senegalese Senegalese
Serbia Serbian Serbians, Serbs
Seychelles Seychellois Seychellois
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean Sierra Leoneans
Singapore Singapore Singaporeans
Slovakia Slovak Slovaks
Slovenia Slovenian, Slovene Slovenians, Slovenes
Solomon Islands Solomon Island Solomon Islanders
Somalia Somali; Somalian Somalis; Somalians
South Africa South African South Africans
South Ossetia South Ossetian South Ossetians
South Sudan South Sudanese South Sudanese
Spain Spanish Spaniards
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan Sri Lankans
Sudan Sudanese Sudanese
Surinam Surinamese Surinamers
Swaziland Swazi Swazis
Sweden Swedish Swedes
Switzerland Swiss Swiss
Syria Syrian Syrians
Republic of China
Taiwanese Taiwanese
Tajikistan Tajikistani Tajikistanis, Tajiks
Tanzania Tanzanian Tanzanians
Thailand Thai Thai
Togo Togolese Togolese
Tonga Tongan Tongans
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian, Tobagonian Trinidadians, Tobagonians
Tunisia Tunisian Tunisians
Turkey Turkish Turks
Turkmenistan Turkmen Turkmens
Turks and Caicos Islands none Turks and Caicos Islanders
Tuvalu Tuvaluan Tuvaluans
Uganda Ugandan Ugandans
Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainians
United Arab Emirates Emirati, Emirian Emiratis, Emirians
United Kingdom British Britons
United States American, U.S. Americans
Uruguay Uruguayan Uruguayans
Uzbekistan Uzbekistani, Uzbek Uzbekistanis, Uzbeks
Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu, Vanuatuan Ni-Vanuatu
Venezuela Venezuelan Venezuelans
Vietnam Vietnamese Vietnamese
Virgin Islands Virgin Island Virgin Islanders
Wales Welsh Welsh
Wallis and Futuna Wallisian, Futunan Wallisians, Futunans
Western Sahara Sahraw, Sahrawian, Sahraouian Sahrawis, Sahraouis
Yemen Yemeni Yemenis
Zambia Zambian Zambians
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Zimbabweans
Source: Wikipedia